What Aren’t Christian Leadership Outcomes? An Expansion of Bell’s Theoretical Model of Christian Leadership

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Barry Cushman


This paper extends Bell’s (2019) theoretical development of a model of Christian leadership, which explored the five dimensions of toxic leadership and their associations with the leadership characteristics Jesus rejected as revealed in Matthew 23:1–­7. Bell inferred those rejected characteristics form the antitheses for a model of healthy (Christian) leadership consisting of at least six dimensions. Bells’ suggestion that the seven woes of Matthew 23 address toxic leaders is accepted, and those verses are analyzed for their insights into the potential outcomes of toxic leadership, which, it is assumed, also form the antitheses of the outcomes of healthy leadership. Potential outcomes of toxic leadership as found in the scientific literature are briefly discussed, and it is noted that the empirical findings are consistent with those found in the seven woes. An approach to avoid toxic effects by training staff to recognize toxic versus healthy leadership principles is recommended.


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Cushman, B. (2020). What Aren’t Christian Leadership Outcomes?. Theology of Leadership Journal, 3(1), 34-50. Retrieved from http://theologyofleadership.com/index.php/tlj/article/view/72