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This study measured ministerial effectiveness from a business organizational perspective by assessing the effects of leadership style, management experience, and education of pastors with respect to church business operations. As non-profits grapple with ways to become more effective and efficient, some churches are experimenting with a new business model that falls somewhere between the for-profit sector and the nonprofit sector in order to remain relevant in the 21st century. This organizational concept is referred to as a hybrid business structure and is positioned in the Emerging Fourth Sector that is wedged between the private and public sectors. Using an original survey (Church Business Operations Assessment Tool) that measures church business operations and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire with protestant pastors in churches located in the United States, we found that transformational leadership style and prior management experience to be significant factors affecting church business operations.
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